Primary sources are the raw materials of historical research - they are the documents or artifacts closest to the topic of investigation. Often they are created during the time period which is being studied (correspondence, diaries, newspapers, government documents, art) but they can also be produced later by eyewitnesses or participants (memoirs, oral histories). You may find primary sources in their original format (usually in an archive) or reproduced in a variety of ways: books, microfilm, digital, etc.
Use primary sources to EVIDENCE and ILLUSTRATE your scholarly argument
Note: The definition of a primary source may vary depending upon the discipline or context.
- Artifacts (e.g. coins, plant specimens, fossils, furniture, tools, clothing, all from the time under study)
- Audio recordings (e.g. radio programs, oral histories)
- Internet communications on email, listservs
- Interviews (e.g., oral histories, telephone, e-mail)
- Journal articles published in peer-reviewed publications
- Newspaper articles written at the time
- Original Documents (i.e. birth certificate, will, marriage license, trial transcript)
- Proceedings of Meetings, conferences and symposia
- Records of organizations, government agencies (e.g. annual report, treaty, constitution, government document)
- Survey Research (e.g., market surveys, public opinion polls)
- Video recordings (e.g. television programs)
- Works of art, architecture, literature, and music (e.g., paintings, sculptures, musical scores, buildings, novels, poems)