Use Arabic superscript numerals outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. When more than 2 references are cited at a given place in the manuscript, use hyphens to join the first and last numbers of a closed series; use commas without spaces to separate other parts of a multiple citation.
The derived data were as follows3,4:
Author(s). Title. Journal Name. Year;vol(issue #):inclusive pages.
Lissarassa YPS, Vincensi CF, Costa-Beber LC, et al. Chronic heat treatment positively impacts metabolic profile of ovariectomized rats: association with heat shock response pathways. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2020;25(3):467-479.
When the DOI is provided, it is preferable to cite it rather than the URL. The DOI is provided immediately after “doi:” with no spaces. If there is no DOI, then include the URL and accessed date for articles accessed electronically.
Author(s). Title. Journal Name. Year;vol(issue #):inclusive pages. DOI.
Wheelis M. Investigating disease outbreaks under a protocol to the biological and toxin weapons convention. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):595-600. Accessed October 26, 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol6no6/wheelis.htm.
Lissarassa YPS, Vincensi CF, Costa-Beber LC, et al. Chronic heat treatment positively impacts metabolic profile of ovariectomized rats: association with heat shock response pathways. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2020;25(3):467-479. doi: 10.1007/s12192-020-01087-z.
Book in Print
Author(s). Book Title. Volume # and title. Edition #. Publisher name; copyright year.
Walker J, Pollard, J, Murray E. Methods in Molecular Biology. Volume 2. Humana Press; 1984.
Author(s). Book Title. Volume # and title. Edition #. Publisher name; copyright year. Accessed date. URL.
Modell AH. Imagination and the Meaningful Brain. MIT Press; 2003. Accessed October 31, 2010. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/uic/docDetail.action?docID=10173553.
Chapter from a Book
Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book Title. Edition number. Publisher name; copyright year:inclusive pages.
Sisk JE. Cardiac catheterization. In: Krapp K, ed. The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health. Gale Group; 2002:407-412.
NOTE: If the chapter is from an eBook, included the accessed date and URL at the end of the citation.
Book with Editors
Armitage JO, Antman KH, eds. High-dose Cancer Therapy: Pharmacology, Hematopoietins, Stem Cells. Williams & Wilkins; 1995.
Author(s) (or, if no author is available, the name of the group responsible for the site). Title of the specific item (or, if no title is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of the Web site. Date published. Date updated. Date Accessed. URL.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. Back Pain. MedlinePlus. n.d. Updated April 30, 2020. Accessed May 14, 2020. https://medlineplus.gov/backpain.html
King MW. Carbohydrate Nomenclature. The Medical Biochemistry Page. Updated April 2, 2020. Accessed June 3, 2020. http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org.
Amoxicillin. Micromedex. Truven Health Analytics; 2020. Updated June 2, 2020. Accessed July 22, 2020. http://www.micromedexsolutions.com/micromedex2/librarian#