Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
CofC Logo

Citation Styles: ASA Style

Anyone who writes and researches in the academic environment must be able to use the citation style for that particular discipline. This guide will give basic information of how and why various citation styles are used.

How do I Cite? ASA 7th Edition

Book in Print - One Author

Author last name, first name. Year of publication. Name of Publication (italicized). Location of publisher, state or province postal code or name of country (if a foreign publisher): Publisher's Name.

Maghbouleh, Neda. 2017. The Limits of Whiteness: Iranian Americans & the Everyday Politics of Race. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.


Book in Print - Two or More Authors

Author1 Last name, First name, and Author2 First name Last name. Year of publication. Name of Publication (italicized). Location of publisher, state or province postal code or name of country (if a foreign publisher): Publisher’s Name.

Edin, Kathryn, and Maria Kefalas. 2005. Promises I Can Keep: Why Poor Women Put Motherhood Before Marriage. Berkeley: University of California Press.

*Include first names and surnames for all authors. Use first-name initials only if an author used initials in the original publication.

More than Three Authors

Author1 Last name, First name, Author2 First name Last name, Author3 First name Last name, and Author4 First name Last name. Year of publication. Name of Publication (italicized). Location of publisher, state or province postal code or name of country (if a foreign publisher): Publisher’s Name.

In your reference, list all authors, unless there are more than 10. For more than 10 authors, only list the first seven, followed by et al. 

Bottomore, T. B., Stefan Nowak, Magdalena SokoĊ‚owska, and International Sociological Association. 1982. Sociology, the State of the Art. London, England: Sage Publications.


Book in Print, Edited

Editor Last name, First name, ed. Year of publication. Name of Publication (italicized). Location of publisher, state or province postal code or name of country (if a foreign publisher): Publisher's Name.

Hagan, John, and Ruth D. Peterson, eds. 1995. Crime and Inequality. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.


Chapter from a Book

Editor Last name, First name, ed. Year of publication. Name of Publication (italicized). Location of publisher, state or province postal code or name of country (if a foreign publisher): Publisher's Name.

Williams, Susan L. 2001. “City Kids and Country Cousins: Rural and Urban Youths, Deviance, and Labor Market Ties.” Pp. 379-441 in Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches, edited by Robert T. Michael. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 
 

eBooks

Author1 Last name, First name. Year of publication. Title of Book (italicized). URL/ DOI.

Armstrong, Kathleen. 2013. Evidence-Based Interventions for Children with Challenging Behavior.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7807-2.

Journal Article - Print

Author Last name, First name. Year of publication. "Title of Article." Title of Journal (italicized) Number volume(Issue number):Page numbers.

Murrell, Audrey J., and Erika Hayes James. 2001. “Gender and Diversity in Organization: Past, Present and Future Directions.” Sex Roles 45(5):243-257.

The citation for print and electronic journal articles is the same with the addition of the DOI or permalink at the end of the citation. 
 

Journal Article - with DOI

Ekaterina, Hertog, and Kan Man-Yee. 2021. "Married Adults Coresiding with Older Parents: Implications for Paid Work and Domestic Workloads." Journal of Population Ageing 14(4):507-535. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12062-021-09346-2.


Journal Article - with stable link

Schafer, Daniel W., and Fred L. Ramsey. 2003. “Teaching the Craft of Data Analysis.” Journal of Statistics Education. 11(1). http://amstat.org/publications/jse/v11n1/schafer.html.

Government documents printed in a book or provided online will be cited like any other book or website. 

Court Cases

Title of case, volume, publication title, page (year).          

Citizens United v. FEC, 558 U.S. 310 (2010).

Perfect 10 Inc. v. Amazon.com Inc., 487 F.3d 701 (2007).

Van Stelton v. Van Stelton, 904 F. Supp. 2d 965 (2012).


Statute

Child Soldiers Accountability Act of 2008, Public Law 110-340, 122 Statutes at Large. 3735 (2008).


Codes

Homeland Security Organization, 6 U.S.C. 101 (2002).

 

Government Document - Known Author

Author1 Last name, First name, Author2 First name Last name, and Institution. Year of publication. Title of Document (italicized). Location of publisher, state or province postal code or name of country (if a foreign publisher): Publisher's Name.

Young, Beth Aronstamm, Thomas M. Smith, and National Center for Education Statistics. 1997. The Social Context of Education. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education.

 

Government Document - Unknown or No Author

Institution. Year of publication. Title of Document (italicized). Location of publisher, state or province postal code or name of country (if a foreign publisher): Parent Institution.

National Institute on Student Achievement, Curriculum, and Assessment. 1999. The Educational System in the United States: Case Study Findings. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education.

Print Newspaper and Magazine Articles

Author Last name, First name. Year of publication. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper (italicized), Month/date of publication, page numbers.

Samuelson, Robert J. 2001. “Can America Assimilate?” Newsweek, April 9, 42.


Newspaper or Magazine Article - website

Sampson, Robert J. 2006. "Open Doors Don't Invite Criminals." New York Times, March 11. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/11/opinion/11sampson.html. 


Newspaper or Magazine Article - library database

Sultan, Aisha.  2012. "Making Your Children Cyber Savvy: Creating a family contract can help with safe online behavior." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 5.https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A298672981/STND?u=cofc_main&sid=bookmark-STND&xid=484e932f.

Page or Document on a Website - Known Author

John Howard Society of Ontario. 2020. “Our Mission & History.” https://johnhoward.on.ca/jhs-ontario/about-jhs-ontario-missionhistory/


Page or Document on a Website - Created by an Organization

Organization Acronym (Organization’s Full Title). Date of Publication or N.d. when the Date is Unknown. “Title of the Page.” Accessed Date (only if no date of publication can be determined from the website). URL.

WHO (World Health Organization). N.d. “About WHO.” Accessed April 17, 2019. https://www.who.int/about.


Blog Post

Author Last name, First name. Year of publication. "Title of Entry." Name Blog (blog). Date, month. URL.

Kaufman, Peter. 2016. "Us vs. Them: The Dangerous Discourse of Difference." Everyday Sociology. August 4. http://www.everydaysociologyblog.com/2016/08/us-vs-them-the-dangerous-discourse-of-difference.html.


Social Media Sources

Author. Year posted. "Text of post." Name of social media site, date posted. URL.

NWS Boston (@NWS Boston). 2019. “Mostly sunny skies across the region today with high temps reaching into the 80s! #HappySaturday.” Twitter, July 13, 8:50 a.m. http://twitter.com/NWSBoston/status/115002534402981068

In-text citations are included in the text of your research paper to document the source of your information.

General Formatting:

  • Cite the last name of the author and year of publication.
  • Include page numbers within the citation when directly quoting the authors’ words, paraphrasing a passage, or referring to specific passages.
  • If the author's name is used in the text, put the date in parentheses immediately afterwards.

When Duncan (1959) studied...

  • If the author's name is not in the text, enclose last name and year in parentheses.

When these relationships were studied (Gouldner 1963)...

Quoting Directly: 

When you quote directly from a source, enclose the quoted section in quotation marks. In the in-text citation, include the page number to the standard author/year format. 

EXAMPLE:  As tabulated by Kuhn (1970:71) the results show...

Two Authors:

Provide both last names of the authors. 

EXAMPLE:
(Martin and Bailey 1988)

Three Authors: 

Give all last names in the  first in-text citation. Afterwards, use the first author's last name followed by et al. 

EXAMPLES: 
(Carr, Smith, and Jones 1962)
(Carr et al. 1962)

Four or More Authors:

When there are four or more authors, use the first author's last name followed by et al. in all in-text citations.

EXAMPLES:
(Nilson et al. 1962)

Institutional or Corporate Author

EXAMPLE:
(U.S. Bureau of the Census 1963:117)

ASA Resources

Contact

Location