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Marketing Research: Write and Cite

Guidance and key resources for doing academic research in marketing.

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Citation Styles Guide

How to Cite

Learn how to cite your sources in MLA, APA, and other styles.

Citation Styles Guide

Other Resources (APA Style)

APA 7th Edition Citations for Business Sources

McDonald’s. (2019). 2018 annual report. https://www.annualreports.com/HostedData/AnnualReportArchive/m/NYSE_MCD_2018.pdf


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

Bloomberg. (2019). Company analysis for Bank of Canada. https://www.bloomberg.com

Bloomberg. (2017). Environmental, social, and governance analysis for Bank of Canada 11/10/12 to 11/10/17. https://www.bloomberg.com


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

Park, K., Philip, S., Davies, W., Man, Y., & Amin, H. (2020, April 20). The virus clips AirAsia’s wings. Bloomberg Businessweek, 16–17.


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

Canada

Find the permalink to cite the Census table directly whenever possible, rather than the various visualization tools such as CHASS which do not have permalinks.

Statistics Canada. (2017). Census profile, 2016 Census: Montréal (Census metropolitan area), Quebec and Quebec (Province) (Table 98-316-X2016001) [Data set]. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CMACA&Code1=462&Geo2=PR&Code2=24&SearchText=Montreal

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Income - total sex: Total - income statistics in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households [Data set]. CHASS. http://datacentre.chass.utoronto.ca

United States

Find the permalink to cite the Census table directly whenever possible, rather than the various visualization tools such as Census Business Builder which do not usually have permalinks.

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). Census business builder: Small business edition - 3.0.1 [Map showing restaurants in the Dane County, WI area and surrounding counties]. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from https://cbb.census.gov/sbe

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). QuickFacts: Madison city, Wisconsin. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/madisoncitywisconsin/LND110210

U.S. Census Bureau. (2017). Construction: Summary statistics for the US, states, and selected geographies (Table EC1723BASIC) [Data set]. U.S. Department of Commerce. https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?tid=ECNBASIC2017.EC1723BASIC


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

Energy Information Administration. (2020, May 17). Retail gasoline prices: Gasoline prices - all grades, 08/20/1990 - 05/11/2020 [Data set]. Department of Energy; Data Planet. https://doi.org/10.6068/DP1722EF40B2064


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

Since the names/titles of DemographicsNow's Demographic Reports are not always very detailed, include a bracketed, consistently worded description of the variables you used so that the person reading your citations may retrieve the same data or, at least, understand what you did to generate the compiled data set you are citing.

Gale. (n.d.). Complete demographic comparison report [Current year estimates and five-year projections for Berkeley, Charleston, and Dorchester Counties] [Data set]. DemographicsNow. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://dnow.gale.com/dnow

Gale. (n.d.). Consumer expenditure restaurant detail comparison [Current year estimates and five-year projections of households in ZIP codes 29401 and 29403 and the Charleston-North Charleston, SC Metro CBSA] [Data set]. DemographicsNow. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://dnow.gale.com/dnow

Gale. (n.d.). Simmons travel comparison [Current year estimates of household expenditures in Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI; Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX; and Pittsburgh, PA Metro CBSAs] [Data set]. DemographicsNow. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://dnow.gale.com/dnow

Gale. (n.d.). Sizing your market: Average alcoholic beverages purchased on trips [Five-year projections of household expenditures in Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI; Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX; and Pittsburgh, PA Metro CBSAs] [Data set]. DemographicsNow. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://dnow.gale.com/dnow

While it is also advisable when working with demographic and consumer marketing data sets to list the agency that originally collected them, DemographicsNow has a somewhat complicated methodology involving Experian’s Census Area Projections & Estimates (CAPE) databases, so it should suffice to exclude these specifics.

Wallin, L., & Silva, C. (2019, December 17). Top 10 technologies that are defining the future of mobility, 2019 update. Gartner. https://www.gartner.com


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

If the report has a unique identifier number, use it in parentheses after the title. In this case, include a more specific description in the brackets than just [Industry report] as is often used elsewhere, because IBIS has risk and other reports as well as global, state, and other levels of industry reports, and sometimes the titles and numbers are the same.

Diment, D. (2019, December). Corporate wellness services (OD4621) [U.S. specialized industry report]. IBISWorld. https://www.ibisworld.com


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

MarketLine. (2019). Renewable energy in Mexico [Industry profile]. https://www.marketline.com

MarketLine. (2019). Immunology influencer network: Influencer analytics 2/27/2020 - 5/27/2020. https://www.marketline.com

Example when retrieved from Business Source Complete:

MarketLine. (2020). Air freight in Australia [Industry profile]. Business Source Complete. https://www.ebsco.com/products/research-databases/business-source-complete


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

Company dossier

LexisNexis. (n.d.). Ford Motor Company [Company profile]. Retrieved May 28, 2020, from https://www.lexisnexis.com

Executive biographies

The Who's Who of Company Directors. (2017, April 6). H. Jay Sarles. NexisUni. https://www.lexisnexis.com

Company information

Zoom Company Information. (2020, May). Ernst & Young Global Limited. NexisUni. https://www.lexisnexis.com

Company lists or directories

Since there is no official title, create a description in square brackets, non-italicized, to explain how you generated this collected and compiled data. See section 9.22 in the Manual. The square brackets in this case indicate that somebody else searching the resource cannot use these exact words to search for it; but they could figure out what you did.

LexisNexis. (n.d.) [List of automobile companies in Germany, over $200M in sales]. Retrieved June 22, 2020, from https://www.lexisnexis.com

SWOT analysis

MarketLine. (2020, January 13). Ford Motor Company [SWOT analysis]. NexisUni. https://www.lexisnexis.com


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

Company profiles

PrivCo. (n.d.). PopSockets [Company profile]. Retrieved May 26, 2020, from https://www.privco.com

Company lists or directories

Since there is no official title, create a description in square brackets, non-italicized, to explain how you generated this collected and compiled data. See section 9.22 in the Manual. The square brackets in this case indicate that somebody else searching the resource cannot use these exact words to search for it; but they could figure out what you did.

PrivCo. (n.d.). [List of VC-backed companies in the Boulder, CO, area with up to $500M in revenue]. Retrieved June 29, 2020, from https://www.privco.com


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

Company profiles

Look in the Business Demographics section for the Last Updated date.

If the title of the company profile is sufficiently unique to identify the company profile (i.e. there is only one of that company in that city & state), then the company name with the city is the title:

Data Axle. (2020, September). Jackson Hewitt Tax Svc-Walmart, Kenai, AK [Company profile]. Reference Solutions. Retrieved January 26, 2021, from https://www.referenceusa.com

If there are multiple locations of that business in that city/state, include the exact address in parentheses as a form of unique number identifier:

Data Axle. (2020, September). Jackson Hewitt Tax Svc-Walmart (3101 A. St, Anchorage, AK) [Company profile]. Reference Solutions. Retrieved January 26, 2021, from https://www.referenceusa.com

Company lists or directories and all other data sets and visualizations

Since there is no official title, create a description in square brackets, non-italicized, to explain how you generated this collected and compiled data. See section 9.22 in the Manual. The square brackets in this case indicate that somebody else searching the resource cannot use these exact words to search for it; but they could figure out what you did.

Data Axle. (n.d.). [List of companies in Walworth County, Wisconsin with 5 or more employees]. Reference Solutions. Retrieved January 26, 2021, from https://www.referenceusa.com

Data Axle. (n.d.). [List of consumers interested in fishing and gourmet food & wine in Cleveland, OH]. Reference Solutions. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://www.referenceusa.com

Data Axle. (n.d.). [Map of consumers interested in fishing and gourmet food & wine in Cleveland, OH]. Reference Solutions. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://www.referenceusa.com


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

Batter, A. (2016, November/December). The impact of a double trigger on the section 162(m) deduction. Journal of Corporate Taxation, 34-38.

Thomson Reuters. (2020). 2020 RIA federal tax handbook. http://checkpoint.riag.com


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

You may need to use a search engine to find the URL for a particular report.

Risk Management Association. (2019, November 11). Financial ratio benchmarks 2019-2020 for NAICS 11110: Soybean farming. https://www.rmahq.org/ProductDetail.aspx?productid=684685779


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

Statistics, dossiers, and reports

Look under the Source section for “Survey by” -- that is the author.

Daniel Research Group. (2019, September). Unit shipments of mobile personal computers (PCs) and laptops in the United States, from 2013 to 2023 (in millions) [Chart]. Statista. https://www.statista.com

Anything without a named author:

Statista. (2020, May). Laptops & tablets [Consumer market outlook]. https://www.statista.com

Infographics

Armstrong, M. (2020, June 4). UK government approval on the slide [Infographic]. Statista. https://www.statista.com


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

Look at the bottom of the company’s stock page for the dates of the PDF reports -- usually approximately quarterly. Those are the archived reports and should be the preferred date.

Value Line. (2020, May 22). Delta Air Lines. Value Line Investment Survey. https://jump.valueline.com


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business

Use a direct/permalink URL whenever available.

Bureau of Economic Analysis. (2020, May 28). Price indexes for personal consumption expenditures by major type of product and by major function (Table 2.3.4U) [Data set]. United States Department of Commerce. https://apps.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?reqid=19&step=3&isuri=1&nipa_table_list=2013

Eurostat. (2020). Area under organic farming [Data set]. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/sdg_02_40

International Financial Statistics. (2020). Government finance: Japan 2013-2020 [Data set]. International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org

World Health Organization. (2020, June 2). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Situation report - 134. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200602-covid-19-sitrep-134.pdf


Credit: Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources. https://bit.ly/APA7business