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Citation Styles and Citation Managers for Graduate Students: APA Style

How do I Cite? APA 7th Edition

Book in Print or eBook from library database - One Author

Author Last Name, A.A.  (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened.

Watson, J. (2012). Human caring science: A theory of nursing (2nd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

NOTE: in the 7th edition, library databases do not need to be included in APA eBook citations. 
 

Book in Print  - Two Authors to Twenty Authors

Author Last Name, A. A., Author Last Name, B. B., & Author Last Name, C. C. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened. 

Case, L. P., Daristotle, L., Hayek, M. G., & Raash, M. F. (2011). Canine and feline nutrition: A resource for companion animal professionals (3rd ed.). Mosby.

*Follow the same rules when there are two - twenty authors (or editors) for any book or eBook citation.
 

Book with Group or Corporate Author

Name of Corporate Author. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given. (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). APA.


eBook from a Library Database

Author's Last Name, A.A. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher. Name of Library Database.

Waldau, Paul. (2010). Animal Rights: What Everyone Needs To Know. Oxford University Press. ProQuest Ebook Central.
 

eBook from a Website

Author's Last Name, A.A. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher. URL

Nightingale, F. (1860). Notes on nursing: What it is, and what it is not. Harrison and Sons. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/ 17366/17366-h/17366-h.htm
 

Chapter, Short Story, or Essay from a Book (Anthology or Collection)

Author's Last Name, A.A. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter, article, essay or short story. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if Given. Editor's Last Name (Ed.), Title of book (edition if given and is not first edition, pp. first page number-last page number). Publisher Name often shortened.

Stockert, P. A. & Taylor, C. (2014). Sleep. In P. A. Potter, A. G. Perry, J. C. Ross-Kerr & M. J. Wood (Eds.), Canadian fundamentals of nursing (5th Cdn. ed., pp. 993-1016). Elsevier.

NOTE: If there is no editor given you may leave out that part of the citation.
 

Book with Editor(s) but No Author

Editor's Last Name, A.A. (Ed.). (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened. 

Leitch, M. G. (Ed.). (2019). A new companion to Malory. D. S. Brewer.

Journal Article from a Library Database with a DOI - One Author

Author's Last Name, A.A. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi number.

Bailey, N. W. (2012). Evolutionary models of extended phenotypes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27(3), 561-569. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126.


Journal Article from a Library Database with a DOI - Two to Twenty Authors*

Author's Last Name, A.A., & Last Name of Second Author, A.A. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi number

Pempek, T. A., Yermolayeva, Y. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2009). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3(2)227-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.010t

*Follow the same rules when there are two to twenty authors for any journal article.
 

Journal Article from a Library Database with a DOI - 21 or more Authors

When the work has 21 or more authors, include only the first 19 names, an ellipsis, and the final name.

Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van den Berg, O., Coetzee, L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M., Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A. (2019). Indie pop rocks mathematics: Twenty One Pilots, Nicolas Bourbaki, and the empty set. Journal of Improbable Mathematics27(1), 1935–1968. https://doi.org/10.0000/3mp7y-537.

*Follow the same rules when there are 21 or more authors for any journal article.


Journal Article from a Library Database without a DOI

Author's Last Name, A.A. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. 

Carlisle, D. (2012). In the line of fire. Nursing Standard, 26(39), 18-19.

NOTE: The APA Manual (7th ed.) recommends not including the database or the URL of the journal home page for articles from a library database without a DOI. 


Journal Article from a Website

Author's Last Name, A.A. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number if given). URL

Flachs, A. (2010). Food for thought: The social impact of community gardens in the Greater Cleveland Area. Electronic Green Journal, 1(30). https://escholarship.org/uc/item/6bh7j4z4


Journal Article in Print

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number.

Jungers, W. L. (2010). Biomechanics: Barefoot running strikes back. Nature, 463(2), 433-434.

Government Document from a Website - Known Author

Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee. (Year of Publication, Month Day). Title of document: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name. URL

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pd


Government Document in Print

Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee. (Year of Publication). Title of document: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name.

Health Council of Canada. (2007). Canadians' experience with chronic illness care in 2007.

NOTE: When the government department, agency or committee that created the document is also the publisher, omit the publisher.


U.S. Supreme Court Decision

Name v. Name, Volume number U.S. Page number (Year). URL

Bartnicki v. Vopper, 532 U.S. 514 (2001). https://www.oyez.org/cases/2000/99-1687
 

State Court Decision

Name v. Name, Volume # Reporter Page # (Court Year). URL

Thorne v. Deas, 4 Johns. 84 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 1809). https://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/torts/torts-keyed-to-dobbs/contract-and-duty/thorne-v-deas/


Statute

Name of Law, Title number U.S.C. § Section number (Year). URL

Anti-Smuggling Act, 19 U.S.C. § 1701 (1935). https://www.loc.gov/item/uscode1958-004019005/


Executive Order

Exec. Order No. xxxx, Volume Number and Name of Code. Page (Year). URL

Exec. Order No. 13648, 78 Fed. Reg. 129 (July 5, 2013).

Magazine Article from a Library Database or in Print - One Author

Author's Last Name, A.A. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Magazine, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. 

Abramsky, S. (2012, May 14). The other America 2012. Nation, 294(20), 11-18. 


Magazine Article from a Library Database - Two to Twenty Authors*

Author's Last Name, A.A., & Last Name of Second Author, B.B. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Magazine, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number if given. 

Gross, A., & Murphy, E. (2010, January/February). Seal of disapproval. E: The Environmental Magazine, 21(1), 34-37. 

*Follow the same rules when there are two authors for any type of Magazine or newspaper article.
 

Magazine Article from a Website

Author's Last Name, A.A. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Magazine, Volume Number(Issue Number if given), first page number-last page number if given. URL

Freedman, D. H. (2012, June). The perfected self. The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/06/the-perfected-self/8970/4/?single_page=true

NOTE: If no volume or issue numbers are provided, skip them in the citation.

 

Magazine Article - Unknown Author*

Article title: Subtitle if any. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Name of Magazine, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number if given. 

Syria's free army. (2012, June 11). Newsweek, 159(24). 

*Follow the same rules when there is an unknown author for any Magazine or Newspaper article.

 
Newspaper Article from a Library Database or in Print

Author's Last Name, A.A. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Newspaper, SectionPage.

Aulakh, R. (2012, June 13). From surviving to thriving. Toronto Star, GT1, GT4.

NOTE: If section and page are not available through the library database, omit them from the citation.


Newspaper Article From a Website

Author's Last Name, A.A. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Newspaper. URL

Aw, J. (2012, June 12). Stopping the soda bulge: Why we need to consider restricting sugary beverages. National Post.  https://nationalpost.com/health/stopping-the-soda-bulge-why-we-need-to-consider-restricting-sugary-beverages


Webpage from a News Website

Author's Last Name, A.A. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of News  Website. URL

Tucker, E. & Miller, Z. (2020, Jan. 18). Dems gear up to make case for Trump's removal. HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/dems-gear-up-to-make-case-for-trumps-removal_n_5e23569ec5b6321176149dbe

Page or Section from a Website Created by an Individual Author

Author's Last Name, A.A. (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of page: Subtitle (if any). Website name. URL

Kmec, J. (2012, March 13). Where’s the boss? And what counts as “work”? The Society Pages. https://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2012/03/13/wheres-the-boss-and-what-counts-as-work/ 


Page or Section from a Website Created by a Corporate or Group Author

Corporation/Group/Organization's Name. (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of page: Subtitle (if any). URL

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.(2021, July 22). Coping with Stress. https://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/stress-coping/cope-with-stress/index.html. 


Page or Document on a Website - Unknown Author

Title of page: Subtitle (if any). (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Name of Website. URL

Timeline: Environmental movement (n.d.).  The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/timeline/environment

Blog Post

Author's Last Name, A.A. (Year blog post was published, Month Day). Title of blog post. Title of Blog. URL

Dobbs, D. (2012, June 13). Fun in cities: Feature, not bug. Wired Science. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/ 2012/06/fun-in-cities-feature-not-bug/

NOTE: If the author's real name is not provided, use the username instead.


Podcast Episode

Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, A.A. (Role in the production e.g. Host, Director, Producer) (Year podcast was released, Month Day if given). Title of podcast episode: Subtitle if given (episode number if known) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of Podcast. Publisher. URL if known

Rogers, S. (Host). (2012, June 18). Richard Wagamese: Children's book panel (No. 225) [Audio podcast episode]. In The Next Chapter. CBC. http://www.cbc.ca/thenextchapter/episode/2012/06/18/richard-wagamese-bookworm-childrens-book-panel/


Twitter

Author last name, A.A. [@Twitter user name]. (Year tweet was posted, Month Day). Text of post up to the first twenty words [Tweet]. Twitter. URL

Giridharadas, A. [@AnandWrites]. (2020, January 17). The fallacy of our age is that we can lift up those down below without interfering with those standing [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/AnandWrites/status/1218203291982749697


Images Posted to Social Media (Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, etc.)

Authors Last Name, A.A. or Name of Group. [screenname handle]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 word [description of emojis] #hashtags [Photograph]. Social Media Platform. URL.

New Zealand Police [newzealandpolice]. (2019, November 15). Class of 2019 // Wellington dog section [paw prints emoji] #fridayfloof [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B43Cl_-J9pN/


Facebook

Post Author Surname, A.A. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Attached media, if applicable] [Type of post]. Site Name. URL

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2020, January 10). Like frosting on a cake, snow coats and clings to the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/USInterior/photos/a.155163054537384/2586475451406120/?type=3&theater

Streaming Video from a Website (YouTube, Vimeo)

Last Name, A.A. of person who posted the video if known. [User name that posted the video] . (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Website. URL

Nye, B. [TheRealBillNye]. (2009, April 8). Bill Nye the science guy on energy [Video]. YouTube. http://youtu.be/0ASLLiuejAo


Streaming Video from a Library Database or Video Service (Kanopy, Films on Demand, Alexander Street, Netflix, Hulu, etc.)

Director's Last Name, A.A. (Director). (Year of Publication). Title of Movie [Film]. Production Company.

Gitlitz, R. (Director). (2017). The story of Diana [Film]. ABC Entertainment.


Television Series Episode

Writer's Last Name, A.A. (Writer), & Director's Last Name, A.A.  (Director). (Year the episode was originally aired, Month Day if known). Title of episode (Season Number, Episode Number) [TV series episode]. In Executive Producer's A. Last Name (Executive Producer), Television series nameProduction Company

Oakley, B. K. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (2020, January 1). The Key (Season 6, Episode 5) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J. L. Brooks, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), Vikings. History. 


DVD With Named Producer, Director or Writer

Director's Last Name, A.A. (Director). (Year DVD was produced). Title of DVD [Film; optional descriptive information if DVD is a unique version]. Production Company.

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

To give credit to the author or authors whose research you are using, you must use parenthetical citations. Citation of an author's work in the text documents your work, briefly identifies the source for the reader, and enables the reader to locate the source of information in the alphabetical reference list at the end of the paper. You should also cite paraphrased findings, techniques, or effects discovered, founded by, or associated with a particular author. 

The essential elements of in-text citation include:

  • the author’s last name or the document’s title, if no author is identified
  • the date of publication

Remember: When you directly quote a source, you must also include the page number (or paragraph in non-paginated material)

Work by a Single Author

Smith (1983) compared reaction  OR
In a recent study of reaction times (Smith, 1983)


Work with Two Authors

Rsearch by Wegner and Petty (1994)  OR
...was supported by research (Wegner & Petty, 1994).


Work with Three or More Authors
(Kernis, et al., 1993)


Work by a Corporate Author

First: A study (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1981) proposed...
Subsequent Citations: (NIMH, 1981)


Unknown Author 

If the author is unknown, cite the source by the first two or three words of the title. Titles of books or reports are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, or web pages are placed in quotation marks. 

Article: ...on free care ("Study Finds," 2007).
Book: ...in the book College Bound Seniors (2008).

Note: When a work's author is designated as "Anonymous," cite as follows: (Anonymous, 2019)


Citing Specific Parts of a Source

When citing a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table or equation when appropriate. Page is abbreviated P. while
Chapter is NOT abbreviated in these text citations.

Research shows (Czapiewski & Ruby, 2009, p. 10)
Research shows (Wilmarth, 2018, Chapter 3)

Direct Quotes

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA Style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). OR 
She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA Style" (Jones, 1998, p.199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why. 
 

Indirect Quotes

In the case of indirect sources, name the original source in your signal phrase, and the secondary source in your in-text citation and reference citations. 

Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).


Long Quotes

Display quotations of more than 40 words in a double-spaced block of typewritten lines with no quotations marks. Indent five spaces from the left margin, and type the entire quotation on the new margin without the usual opening paragraph indentation. If the quotation is more than one paragraph, indent the first line of the second paragraph and additional paragraphs five spaces from the new margin.

APA Citation Style

Tutorial
Guides

Credit

Examples and information have been pulled directly from the 7th edition APA Style Guide as well as Columbia College's Citation Guide and Purdue's Online Writing Lab.

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