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Citation Styles and Citation Managers for Graduate Students: Chicago Style

Chicago Manual of Style Quick Guide

For more examples and variations of notations and bibliographic citations, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style Quick Guide.

How do I Cite? Chicago 17th Edition

Notes-Bibliography

Chicago Manual of Style has two documentation methods: Author-Date System and Notes-Bibliography System. Notes Bibliography is most commonly used at the College of Charleston, and all examples on this guide are modeled after those rules. However, it is to your benefit to always doublecheck with your faculty on what is necessary for a specific course. 

Notes-Bibliography uses uses numbered footnotes in the text to direct the reader to a shortened citation at the bottom of the page. This corresponds to a more complete citation on a Bibliography page that concludes the document. While these citations are very similar, there are key differences you need to pay attention to. (i.e. You cannot just copy and paste your bibliography citation into a note.)

Keep the following formatting rules in mind:

  • The first note will be written in full; subsequent notes of the same source are abbreviated. 
  • If you have notes from the same sourced one after another, use "Ibid." instead of repeating the detailed information. For example:
    • 5. Smith, Happy Songs, 41.
    • 6. Ibid., 45-9.
    • 7. Ibid.
    • 8. Lewis, "Pea Soup," 75.
    • 9. Ibid., 77.
    • 10. Smith, Happy Songs, 49.
  • Label the first page of your back matter, your comprehensive list of sources, Bibliography.
  • Each bibliography entry should be single spaced.
  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
  • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry, be that the author's name or the title of the piece.


Missing Information

If there is no author given, your citation will start with the title of the work. You must put these citations in correct alphabetical order in your Bibliography.

When putting works in alphabetical order, ignore initial articles such as "the", "a", or "an". For example the title The Best of Canada would be alphabetized as if it started with the word Best instead of the word The.

If the title begins with a number, alphabetize it as if the number was spelled out. For example the title 5 Ways to Succeed in Business would be alphabetized under F as if it had started with the word Five .

For example, this is how the following titles would be alphabetized:

Anthropology in Action [A]
The Best of Canada [B... ignore "The"]
Easy Plant Care [E]
5 Ways to Succeed in Business [F... 5=Five]
A Special Kind of Madness [S... ignore "A"]

No Author

If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title of the work you are citing instead. Remember that an author/creator won't necessarily be a person's name. It may be an organization or corporation, for example Health Canada or a username on a site such as YouTube.

No Date

Print Materials: if no publication date is provided, use the initials n.d. where you would normally put the date.
Online materials: if no copyright or modification date is provided, use the date that you accessed the material (e.g. accessed June 12, 2020).

No Place of Publication

If there is no place of publication given, use the initials n.p. where you would normally put the place of publication.

Regardless of source type (book, journal article, newspaper, etc.), the rules for multiple authors remains the same. 

Two Authors

First Author's Last Name, First Name and Second Author's First Name Last Name...

Ledlow, Gerald R., Karl Manrodt, and David Schott. Health Care Supply Chain Management: Elements, Operations, and Strategies. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2017.

Three Authors

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, and Third Author's First Name Last Name...

Salafia, Elizabeth Blodgett, and Jessica Lemer. "Associations Between Multiple Types of Stress and Disordered Eating Among Girls and Boys in Middle School." Journal of Child and Family Studies 21, no. 1 (January 2012): 148-57. Academic Search Complete.

1. Gerald R. Ledlow, Karl Manrodt, and David Schott, Health Care Supply Chain Management: Elements, Operations, and Strategies (Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2017), 68.

2. Salafia and Lemer, "Stress and Disordered Eating," 151.

Four or More Authors

NOTE:  If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a footnote, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). 

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, Third Author's First Name Last Name, and Fourth Author's First Name Last Name...

Worland, Justin, Anna Purna Kambhampaty, Mariah Espada, Amy Gunia, Karl Vick, and Vivienne Walt. "Racial-Justice Organizers." TIME Magazine, December 21, 2020. Academic Search Complete.

1. Justin Worland et al., "Racial-Justice Organizers," TIME Magazine, December 21, 2020, 79, Academic Search Complete.

 

Book in Print - One Author

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

Vijayakumar, Gowri. At Risk: Indian Sexual Politics and the Global AIDS Crisis. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2021. 

Notes: 

1. Author's First Name Last Name, Title of Book: Subtitle if Any (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number.

1. Gowri Vijayakumar, At Risk: Indian Sexual Politics and the Global AIDS Crisis (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2021), 22. 

2. Vijayakumar, At Risk, 30. 

 

Book in Print - Two or Three Authors*

Bibliography Entry:

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, and Third Author's First Name Last Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

Ledlow, Gerald R., Karl Manrodt, and David Schott. Health Care Supply Chain Management: Elements, Operations, and Strategies. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2017.

Notes: 

1. First Author's First Name Last Name and Second Author's First Name Last Name, Title of Book: Subtitle if Any (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number.

1. Gerald R. Ledlow, Karl Manrodt, and David Schott, Health Care Supply Chain Management: Elements, Operations, and Strategies (Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2017), 68.

2. Ledlow, Manrodt, and Schott, Health Care Supply Chain, 83.

*Follow the same rules when there are two or  three authors (or editors) for any book or eBook citation.

 

Book - Group or Corporate Author

Bibliography Entry:

Corporate Author. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

Modern Language Association. MLA Handbook. 8th ed. New York: Modern Language Association, 2016.

Notes: 

1. Corporate Author, Title of Book: Subtitle if Any, Edition if given and is not first edition (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number.

1. Modern Language Association, MLA Handbook, 8th ed. (New York: Modern Language Association, 2016), 32.

2. Modern Language Association, MLA Handbook, 37.
 

eBook from a Library Database

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. Name of Library Database.

Waldau, Paul. Animal Rights: What Everyone Needs To Know. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost).

Notes: 

1. Author's First Name Last Name, Title of Book: Subtitle if Any (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number, Name of Library Database.

1. Paul Waldau, Animal Rights: What Everyone Needs To Know (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 45, eBook Collection (EBSCOhost).

2. Waldau, Animal Rights, 53.
 

eBook from a Website

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. URL.

Henty, George Alfred. The Cat of Bubastes: A Tale of Ancient Egypt. London: Blackie and Son, 1889.  babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015073478847.

Notes:

1. Author's First Name Last Name, Title of Book: Subtitle if Any (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number, URL.

1. Author's Last Name, Abbreviated Title, chapter or page number.

2. Henty, Cat of Bubastes, chap. 4.

NOTE: If the eBook was from an eReader device, state the name of the device instead of the URL in the citation. 
 

Chapter, Short Story, or Essay from a Book (Edited Anthology or Collection)

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Chapter, Short Story, or Essay." In Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, edited by Editor's First Name Last Name, Page Range of Chapter or Part. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

Ross, Colin. "The Story of Grey Owl." In Fiction/Non-Fiction: A Reader and Rhetoric. 2nd ed, edited by Garry Engkent and Lucia Engkent, 327-333. Toronto: Thomson Nelson, 2006.

Notes: 

1. Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Chapter, Short Story, or Essay," in Title of Book: Subtitle if Any, Edition if given and is not first edition, ed. Editor's First Name Last Name (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number.

1. Colin Ross, "The Story of Grey Owl," in Fiction/Non-Fiction: A Reader and Rhetoric, 2nd ed., eds. Garry Engkent and Lucia Engkent (Toronto: Thomson Nelson, 2006), 328.

2. Ross, "The Story of Grey Owl," 332.

NOTE: If the chapter, short story, or essay from a book is in an anthology or collection of an author's own work, use the same citation and skip "edited by Editor's name." 

 

Book with Editor(s) but No Author

Bibliography Entry:

Editor's Last Name, First Name, ed. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

Matuz, Roger, ed. Contemporary Canadian Artists. Toronto: Gale Canada, 1997.

Notes: 

1. Editor's First Name Last Name, ed., Title of Book: Subtitle if Any, Edition if given and is not first edition (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number.

1. Roger Matuz, ed., Contemporary Canadian Artists (Toronto: Gale Canada, 1997), 35.

2. Matuz, Contemporary Canadian Artists, 40.

Journal Article from a Library Database - One Author

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): First Page Number of Article-Last Page Number of Article. https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

Guillen, Jorge. "Does Financial Openness Matter in the Relationship Between Financial Development and Income Distribution in Latin America?" Emerging Markets Finance and Trade 52, no 2 (2016): 1145-1155. https:/doi/org/10.1080/1540496X.2015.1046337.

Notes: 

1. Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Article," Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): Page Number of Exact Citation, https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

1. Jorge Guillen, "Does Financial Openness Matter in the Relationship Between Financial Development and Income Distribution in Latin America?" Emerging Markets Finance & Trade 52, no. 2 (2016): 1148, https:/doi/org/10.1080/1540496X.2015.1046337.

2. Guillen, "Does Financial Openness Matter?," 1152.

 

Journal Article from a Library Database  - Four or More Authors*

Bibliography Entry:

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, Third Author's First Name Last Name, and Fourth Author's First Name Last Name. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): First Page Number of Article-Last Page Number of Article. https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

Simpson, Leanne Betasamosake, Rinaldo Walcott, Glen Coulthard, and Michael Moats. "Idle No More and Black Lives Matter: An Exchange (Panel Discussion)." Studies in Social Justice 12, no. 1 (Winter 2018): 75-89. Directory of Open Access Journals.

Notes: 

1. First Author's First Name Last Name et al., "Title of Article," Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): Page Number of Exact Citation, https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

1. Leanne Betasamosake Simpson et al., "Idle No More and Black Lives Matter: An Exchange (Panel Discussion)," Studies in Social Justice 12, no. 1 (Winter 2018): 77-79, Directory of Open Access Journals.

2. Simpson et al., "Idle No More," 85.

*Follow the same rules when there are four or more authors for any journal article

 

Journal Article in Print  - Two or Three Authors*

Bibliography Entry:

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, and Third  Author's First Name Last Name. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): First Page Number of Article-Last Page Number of Article.

Parkman, Ian D., Alan Krause, and Samantha Pires. "The Diamond Model of Authentic Green Marketing: Evidence From the Sustainable Architecture Industry." Business and Society Review 123, no. 1 (2018): 83-118.

Notes: 

1. First Author's First Name Last Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, and Third Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Article," Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): Page Number of Exact Citation.

1. Ian D. Parkman, Alan Krause, and Samantha Pires, "The Diamond Model of Authentic Green Marketing: Evidence From the Sustainable Architecture Industry," Business and Society Review 123, no. 1 (2018): 92.

2. Parkman, Krause, and Pires , "Authentic Green Marketing," 97-101.

*Follow the same rules when there are two or three authors for any journal article

Legal publications only need to be cited in the notes, not the bibliography (unless you have a secondary publication, like a book in which the legal publication appears, in which case CMOS takes over).


Testimony/Hearings

1. Published Title of the Recorded Testimony, Before the Relevant Committee, number of the Congress, page# (year) (Speaker's Name, Title and Affiliation).

1. Homeland Security Act of 2002: Hearings on H.R. 5005, Day 3, Before the Select Comm. on Homeland Security, 107th Cong. 203 (2002) (statement of David Walker, Comptroller General of the United States).


Court Decision

1.Name1 v. Name2, volume# Reporter Name (abbrev.) series# pg (Name of Court (abbrev.) Year), url.

1. State v. Griffin, 211 W. Va. 508, 566 S.E.2d 645 (2002), http://www.courtswv.gov/supreme-court/docs/spring2002/30433.htm.


Statute

1. Name of the Bill, vol# Reporter Name series# (year), url.

1. Chinese Exclusion Act, 22 Stat. 58 (1882), https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=47&page=transcript.
 

Unenacted Bill or Resolution

1. Name of the Bill, Bill No., No. of the Congress, section # (year).

1. Restore Our Parks and Public Lands Act, H.R. 1225, 116th Cong. (2019).

Magazine Article from a Library Database - One Author

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Magazine, Date of Publication. https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

Weinstein, Becca. "Trying Before Buying." Psychology Today, 2016. CINAHL Complete.

Notes:

1. Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Article," Name of Magazine, Date of Publication, Page Number of Exact Citation, https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

1. Becca Weinstein, "Trying Before Buying," Psychology Today, May-June 2012, 46, CINAHL Complete.

2. Weinstein, "Trying Before Buying," 46.


Magazine Article from a Library Database - Two or Three Authors* 

Bibliography Entry:

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, and Third Author's First Name Last Name "Title of Article." Name of Journal, Date of Publication. https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

Jefferson, David J. and Temma Ehrenfeld. "The Divorce Generation Grows Up." Newsweek, April 21, 2008. MAS Ultra.

Notes:

1. First Author's First Name Last Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, and Third Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Article," Name of Journal, Date of Publication, Page Number of Exact Citation, https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

1. David J. Jefferson and Temma Ehrenfeld,  "The Divorce Generation Grows Up," Newsweek, April 21, 2008, 149, MAS Ultra.

2. Jefferson and Ehrenfeld, "Divorce Generation Grows Up," 46.

*Follow the same rules when there are two or three authors for any type of Magazine or newspaper article.
 

Newspaper Article from a Library Database

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper (City and Province/State of Publication, if not Included in Name), Date of Publication. https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

Schmidt, Sarah. "Companies Fail the Test: Junk Food Marketing Aimed at Kids Faulted." The Gazette (Montreal), March 10, 2010. Canadian Newsstand.

Notes:

1. Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Article," Name of Newspaper (City and Province/State of Publication, if not Included in Name), Date of Publication, https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

1. Sarah Schmidt, "Companies Fail the Test: Junk Food Marketing Aimed at Kids Faulted," The Gazette (Montreal), March 10, 2010, Canadian Newsstand.

2. Schmidt, "Companies Fail the Test."


Newspaper or Magazine Article From a Website

To cite an article from a website, use the same format for either a Newspaper or Magazine article from a library database (examples above). Instead of the DOI or database name, include the URL.

Website - Known Author

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Website. Name of Owner or Sponsor of the Website [if different from Title of Website]. Date of copyright or modification or access. URL.

Mabillard, Amanda. Shakespeare Online. Last modified March 27, 2021. www.shakespeare-online.com.

Notes: 

1. Author's First Name Last Name, Title of Website, Name of Owner or Sponsor of the Website [if different from Title of Website], Date of copyright or modification or access, URL. 

1. Amanda Mabillard, Shakespeare Online, last modified March 27, 2021, www.shakespeare-online.com.

2. Mabillard, Shakespeare Online.


Page or Document on a Website - Created by an Organization

Bibliography Entry:

Name of Corporation, Group, or Organization Associated with the Website. "Title of Page or Document." Title of Website [if different from Name of Corporation, Group, or Organization]. Date of copyright or modification or access. URL.

Chartered Professional Accountants Canada. "Audit and Assurance."  2016. www.cpacanada.ca/en/business-and-accounting-resources/audit-and-assurance.

Notes: 

1. "Title of Page or Document," Title of Website, Name of Corporation, Group, or Organization Associated with the Website [if different from Title of Website], Date of copyright or modification or access, URL. 

1. "Audit and Assurance," Chartered Professional Accountants Canada, 2016, www.cpacanada.ca/en/business-and-accounting-resources/audit-and-assurance.

2. Chartered Professional Accountants Canada, "Audit and Assurance."


Page or Document on a Website - Known Author

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Page or Document." Title of Website. Name of Owner or Sponsor of the Website [if different from Title of Website]. Date of copyright or modification or access. URL.

Morin, Amy.  "Mom Am I Fat?: Helping Your Teen Have a Positive Body Image." Verywell Family. About Inc. January 18, 2019. www.verywellfamily.com/media-and-teens-body-image-2611245. 

Notes: 

1. Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Page or Document," Title of Website, Name of Owner or Sponsor of the Website [if different from Title of Website], Date of copyright or modification or access, URL. 

1. Amy Morin, "Mom Am I Fat?: Helping Your Teen Have a Positive Body Image," Verywell Family, About Inc., January 18, 2019, www.verywellfamily.com/media-and-teens-body-image-2611245. 

2. Morin, "Mom Am I Fat?"


Page or Document on a Website - Unknown Author

Bibliography Entry:

"Title of Page or Document." Title of Website. Name of Owner or Sponsor of the Website [if different from Title of Website]. Date of copyright or modification or access. URL.

"How to Teach Yourself Guitar." eHow. Demand Media. Accessed June 24, 2016. www.ehow.com/how_5298173_teach-yourself-guitar.html.

Notes: 

1. "Title of Page or Document," Title of Website, Name of Owner or Sponsor of the Website [if different from Title of Website], Date of copyright or modification or access, URL. 

1. "How to Teach Yourself Guitar," eHow, Demand Media, accessed June 24, 2016, www.ehow.com/how_5298173_teach-yourself-guitar.html.

2. "How to Teach."

Blog Post

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Blog Post." Title of BlogName of Publication [if blog is part of a larger publication]. Date of Post. URL. 

Naish, Darren. "If Bigfoot Were Real." Tetrapod Zoology (blog). Scientific American. June 27, 2016. blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/if-bigfoot-were-real/.

Notes: 

1. Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Blog Post," Title of BlogName of Publication [if blog is part of a larger publication], Date of Post, URL. 

1. Darren Naish, "If Bigfoot Were Real," Tetrapod Zoology (blog), Scientific American, June 27, 2016, blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/if-bigfoot-were-real/.

2. Naish, "If Bigfoot Were Real".


Podcast Episode

Bibliography Entry:

Host's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Podcast Episode." Produced by Producer Name. Name of Podcast. Date of Episode. Podcast, File Format [if downloaded and not played in a web browser], Running Time. Time Stamp [if referencing a specific section of the episode]. URL.

Ayed, Nahlah. "The Greenest Metaphor," Produced by CBC Listen. Ideas. April 1, 2021. Podcast, 53:59. https://www.cbc.ca/listen/live-radio/1-23-ideas/clip/15835019-the-greenest-metaphor. 

Notes: 

1. Host's First Name Last Name, "Title of Podcast Episode," Date of Episode, in Name of Podcast, produced by Producer Name, podcast, File Format [if downloaded and not played in a web browser], Running Time, Time Stamp [if referencing a specific section of the episode], URL.

1. Nahlah Ayed, "The Greenest Metaphor," April 1, 2021, in Ideas, produced by CBC Listen, podcast, 53:59, https://www.cbc.ca/listen/live-radio/1-23-ideas/clip/15835019-the-greenest-metaphor. 

2. Ayed, "Greenest Metaphor."


Twitter

Bibliography Entry:

Author of Post's Last Name, First Name (screen name). "Text of the tweet up to 160 characters." Twitter, Date of Post. URL. 

Athar, Sohaib (@ReallyVirtual). "Helicopter hovering above Abbottad at 1AM (is a rare event)." Twitter, January 4, 2013. twitter.com/reallyvirtual/status/64780730286358528?lang=en.

Notes: 

1. Author of Post's First Name Last Name (screen name), "Text of the tweet up to 160 characters," Twitter, Date of Post, URL. 

1. Sohaib Athar (@ReallyVirtual), "Helicopter hovering above Abbottad at 1AM (is a rare event).," Twitter, January 4, 2013, twitter.com/reallyvirtual/status/64780730286358528?lang=en.

2. Athar, "Helicopter hovering."


Facebook

Bibliography Entry:

Author of Post's Last Name, First Name [or Account Name]. "Text of the post up to 160 characters." Facebook, Date of Post. URL. 

Mercer, Rick. "Hey Democracy, look what I did." Facebook, October 14, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/165520333793158/photos/a.169211226757402/169210553424136/.

Notes: 

1. Author of Post's First Name Last Name [or Account Name], "Text of the post up to 160 characters," Facebook, Date of Post, URL. 

1. Rick Mercer. "Hey Democracy, look what I did.," Facebook, October 14, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/165520333793158/photos/a.169211226757402/169210553424136/.

2. Mercer, "Hey Democracy."

Streaming Video from a Website (YouTube, Vimeo)

Bibliography Entry:

Video Creator's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Video." Name of Website. Date Posted. Video, Running Time. URL.

Red Five Films. "Katy Jade Dobson - Artist Interview." YouTube, April 13, 2016. Video, 3:45. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0jHfVrgC7M.

Notes: 

1. Video Creator's First Name Last Name, "Title of Video," Name of Website, Date Posted, video, Running Time, URL. 

1. Red Five Films, "Katy Jade Dobson - Artist Interview," YouTube, April 13, 2016, video, 3:45, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0jHfVrgC7M.

2. Red Five Films, "Katy Jade Dobson."


Streaming Video from a Library Database (Kanopy, Films on Demand, Alexander Street, etc.)

Bibliography Entry:

Main Contributor's Last Name, First Name. Title of Video. Additional Contributors [if relevant]. Original Release Year; City: Studio/Distributor, Video Release Year [if different]. Name of Database.

Spielberg, Steven, dir. Ready Player One.  2018; Burbank, CA: Warner Brothers. Criterion.

Notes: 

1. Title of Video, Contributors (Original Release Year; City: Studio/Distributor, Video Release Year [if different]), Name of Database.

1. Ready Player One, directed by Steven Spielberg (2018; Burbank, CA: Warner Brothers), Criterion.

2. Speilberg, Ready Player One.


Streaming Video from a Video Service (Netflix, Hulu, HBO Max, etc.)

Bibliography Entry:

Main Contributor's Last Name, First Name. Title of Film. Additional Contributors [if relevant]. Original Release Year; City: Studio/Distributor. Name of Streaming Service.

Selick, Henry, dir. Coraline. Screenplay by Henry Selick and Neil Gaiman. 2009; Hillsboro, OR: Laika. Netflix.

Notes: 

1. Title of Film, Contributors (Original Release Year; City: Studio/Distributor), Name of Streaming Service.

1. Coraline, directed by Henry Selick, screenplay by Henry Selick and Neil Gaiman (2009; Hillsboro, OR: Laika), Netflix.

2. Selick, Coraline.


Streaming Television Series Episode from a Video Service (Netflix, Hulu, HBO Max, etc.)

Bibliography Entry:

Main Contributor's Last Name, First Name, role. Season number, episode number, "Title of Episode." Additional Contributors [if relevant]. Aired Air Date, on Network. Name of Streaming Service.

Moore, Ronald D., developer. Season 1, episode 4, "The Gathering." Performances by Caitriona Balfe and Sam Heughan. Aired August 30, 2014, on Starz. Netflix.

Notes: 

1. Title of TV Show, season number, episode number, "Title of Episode," Contributors, aired Air Date, on Network, Name of Streaming Service.

1. Outlander, season 1, episode 4, "The Gathering," Developed by Ronald D. Moore, performances by Caitriona Balfe and Sam Heughan, aired August 30, 2014, on Starz, Netflix.

2. Moore, Outlander.

Depending on the material, you may be able to utilize other CMOS guidelines to cite your sources, such as a chapter or section in a book or an image available online. However, archival materials can be more challenging as they often require more  details about their location.

General format for a bibliography entry and note: 

Collection name. Repository name, Location of Repository.

1. Title or description of item, date (day, month, year), Reference code, Collection name, Repository name, Location of repository. URL if applicable.

Letter from the Archives

Bibliography Entry:

Caroline Howard Gilman papers, South Carolina Historical Society, Charleston, SC.

Notes:

1. Caroline Howard Gilman to Anna M. White, 15 January 1859, Carolina Howard Gilman Papers (1036.00), South Carolina Historical Society, Charleston, SC.
 

Text Document from the Archives

Bibliography Entry:

Lynn Dugan papers. College of Charleston Special Collections, Charleston, SC.

Notes:

1. Articles of Incorporation, 12 January 2010, Mss 0208, box 1, folder 1, Lynn Dugan papers. College of Charleston Special Collections, Charleston, SC.


Art Materials (drawings, posters, paintings, cartoons, prints, broadsides)

Bibliography Entry:

Robert Doyle fonds. Dalhousie University Archives, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Notes:

1. Costume design for Andromache and son, 1992, MS-3-18, Box 6, Folder 5, Item 5, Robert Doyle fonds, Dalhousie University Archives, Halifax, Nova Scotia. https://findingaids.library.dal.ca/costume-design-for-andromache-and-son


Photographs

Bibliography Entry:

Ninomiya Photography Studio. Ninomiya Studio Collection. Gerth Archives and Special Collections, California State University, Dominguez Hills, Carson, CA.

Notes:

1. Photograph of tradeswomen at a Century Freeway construction site, n.d., SPC.2008.004, Vivian Price Collection, Gerth Archives and Special Collections, California State University, Dominguez Hills, Carson, CA. https://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/tradeswomen/id/408/rec/6.
 

Oral Histories

NOTE: Unpublished interviews are best cited in text or in notes, though they occasionally appear in bibliographies.

Notes:

1. Ida Ostendorff, Interview by Rebecca Michaud, 1 March 2011, transcript, Charleston Oral History Program, Citadel Archives and Museum, Charleston, SC. https://lcdl.library.cofc.edu/lcdl/catalog/lcdl:23447 

 

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