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Citation Styles and Citation Managers for Graduate Students: CSE Style

How do I Cite? CSE 8th Edition

In-text References 

The CSE Manual suggests three ways to cite your sources in text:

1.    Citation -Sequence
Place a numeral (either superscript or in normal font inside parentheses) after each time you use a source in your paper. This number will be associated with this source for the entire paper. These numbers will also directly relate to your cited references at the end of your paper. 

  • In-text Reference: 
    Recent research has shown that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important contributory factor to suicides in adoloescents. (1) Traumatic life events and PTSD are endemic among American civilians. (2) Additionally, “the impact of important clinical factors on the relations between PTSD and adolescent suicidality remains unclear.” (1)
     
  • End References:
    1.    Panagioti M, Gooding P, Triantafyllou K, & Tarrier N. Suicidality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2015 Apr;50(4): 525-537.
     
    2.    Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, & Nelson CB. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995 Dec;52(12): 1048-1060.    


2. Citation-Name
This is very similar to the Citation-Sequence, however you will set up your End References first, alphabetically by author. Number theses references and then use the corresponding number in your in-text citations.

  • In-text Reference: 
    Recent research has shown that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important contributory factor to suicides in adoloescents. (2) Traumatic life events and PTSD are endemic among American civilians. (1) Additionally, “the impact of important clinical factors on the relations between PTSD and adolescent suicidality remains unclear.” (2)
     
  • End References:
    1.    Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, & Nelson CB. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995 Dec;52(12): 1048-1060.    

    2.    Panagioti M, Gooding P, Triantafyllou K, & Tarrier N. Suicidality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2015 Apr;50(4): 525-537.


3.    Name-Year
Put the author’s last name and the year of publication in parentheses as your in-text reference.

  • In-text References:
    The NIH has called for a change in smallpox vaccination policy (Fauci 2002) that…
    • NOTE: For three or more authors, list the first author’s last name followed by et al. in your in-text reference. 
       …but later studies (Ito et al. 1999) established that…
       
  • End References:
    Fauci AS. 2002. Smallpox vaccination policy-the need for dialogue. N Engl J Med. 346(17):1319-1320.

End References

Like other formatting styles, the reference list is located at the end of your paper. Since CSE is not as structured in its formatting, this reference page can be titled different ways, most commonly References or Cited References. 

Reminders:

  • Each entry is single-spaced, with spaces between entries. 
  • The most important element about your reference page is that each entry listed on this page must correspond to one cited in your paper. 
  • Sources that were consulted but not actually cited should be listed after your Cited References under a different heading (i.e. Additional Reading or Addition References). 

The way your End References are formatted will depend on your in-text references.

  1. Citation-Sequence: list and number end references in the order that they are first documented in the text.
  2. Citation-Name: alphabetize your references by the first author’s last name and number your list. These numbers reflect your in-text references.
  3. Name-Year: place references in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. 
     

Examples taken from the CSE Manual, 8th Edition. Note that journal titles are abbreviated and not fully written out. Please consult the manual for more examples and details.

Print Journal

Citation-sequence and citation-name systems:
Format: 
Author(s). Article title. Journal title. Date;volume(issue):location.
Example:
Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J Card Fail. 2003;9(1):49-58.

Name-year system:
Format:
Author(s). Date. Article title. Journal title. Volume(issue):location.
Example: 
Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. 2003. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J Card Fail. 9(1):49-58.


Online Journal Article

Citation-sequence and citation-name systems:
Format: 

Author(s). Article title. Journal title. Date of publication [date updated; date accessed];volume(issue):location.DOI, permalink, or URL.
Example:
Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Bread S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BMJ. 2005 [accessed 2022 January 27];330(7500):1119-1200. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.

Name-year system:
Format:

Author(s). Date of publication. Article title. Journal title. [date updated; date accessed];volume(issue):location.DOI, permalink, or URL.
Example:
Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Bread S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. 2005. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BMJ. [accessed 2022 January 27];330(7500):1119-1200. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.
 

Examples taken from the CSE Manual, 8th Edition. Please consult the manual for more examples and details.

Print Book

Citation-sequence and citation-name systems:
Format: 
Author(s). Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication.
Example:
Schott J, Priest J. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives; 2002.

Name-year system:
Format:

Author(s). Date of Publication. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example: 
Schott J, Priest J. 2002. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives.


eBook

Citation-sequence and citation-name systems:
Format: 

Author(s). Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. DOI, permalink, or URL.
Example:
Cooper GM. The cell: a molecular approach. 2nd ed. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000 [accessed 2022 January 28]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9839/

Name-year system:
Format:

Author(s). Date of Publication. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. DOI, permalink, or URL.
Example:
Cooper GM. 2000. The cell: a molecular approach. 2nd ed. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; [accessed 2022 January 28]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9839/

Examples taken from the CSE Manual, 8th Edition. Please consult the manual for more examples and details.

Website

Citation-sequence and citation-name systems:
Format: 
Title of Homepage. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. Permalink or URL.
Example:
‚ÄčAbout plant pathology and APS. St. Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Society; 2022 [accessed 2022 January 28]. https://www.apsnet.org/about/newsroom/about/Pages/default.aspx.

Name-year system:
Format:

Title of Homepage. Date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. Permalink or URL.
Example: ‚Äč
About plant pathology and APS. 2022. St. Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Society; [accessed 2022 January 28]. https://www.apsnet.org/about/newsroom/about/Pages/default.aspx.

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